Language, History & Customs

Language

Lithuanian is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.96 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania and about 170,000 abroad. Lithuanian is a Baltic language, closely related to Latvian, although they are not mutually intelligible. It is written in an adapted version of the Roman script. The Lithuanian language is believed to be the most conservative living Indo-European language, retaining many features of Proto Indo-European now lost in other Indo-European languages.

Lithuanian

lietuvių kalba

Spoken in

Lithuania

Region

Europe

Native speakers

3.2 million (Lithuania)
500,000 (Abroad)
4 million (Worldwide)[1]

Language family

Indo-European

Dialects

Samogitian

Writing system

Latin (Lithuanian variant)

Official status

Official language in

 Lithuania
 European Union

Recognised minority language in

 Poland

Regulated by

Commission of the Lithuanian Language

Language codes

ISO 639-1

lt

ISO 639-2

lit

Lithuanian dictionaries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

First Lithuanian language dictionary

Lithuanian dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries of Lithuanian language have been printed since the first half of the 17th century.

Contents

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History

The first Lithuanian language dictionary was compiled by Konstantinas Sirvydas and printed in 1629 as a trilingual (Polish–Latin–Lithuanian) dictionary. Five editions of it were printed until 1713, but it was used and copied by other lexicographers until 19th century.[1][2]

The first German–Lithuanian–German dictionary, to address the necessities of Lithuania Minor was published by Friedrich W. Haack in 1730.[1]

A better German–Lithuanian–German dictionary, with a sketch of grammar and history of the language, more words, and systematic orthography, was published by Ruhig (Pilypas Ruigys) in 1747.[1]

In 1800, Mielcke (Kristijonas Gotlybas Milkus) printed an expanded and revised version of Ruhig's. Its foreword was the last work of Immanuel Kantprinted during his life.[3]

There also existed a number of notable unpublished dictionaries.

At the beginning of the 19th century linguists recognized the preserved archaic character of Lithuanian, and it came into the focus of the comparative linguistics of Indo-European languages. To address the needs of linguists, Georg H. F. Nesselmann published a Lithuanian–German dictionary in 1851.[1]

The culmination of Lithuanian linguists' efforts is the 20-volume Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian.[2]

References

  1. a b c d "Kazimieras Būga and the Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian", by Antanas KlimasLituanus, vol. 27, no.4, 1981
  2. a b "Dictionaries" article from Encyclopedia Lituanica, based on the article from Lituanus
  3. ^ Mielcke's Lithuanian dictionary

 

 

 

 

Customs and Etiquette in Lithuania

 

Meeting and Greeting

The most common greeting is the handshake, with direct eye contact, and a smile.
.Once a relationship has been established, greetings may become more unreserved and include a hug.

.Wait for your Lithuanian friends to determine when your friendship has reached this level of intimacy. 
.People are addressed by their honorific title and their surname. Wait until invited before moving to a first name basis.

Gift Giving Etiquette

.If invited to a Lithuanian's home, bring wine, flowers, or sweets to the hostess.

.Give an odd number of flowers.

.Do not give chrysanthemums - they are used in funerals.

.Do not give white flowers - they are reserved for weddings. 
.Gifts are generally opened when received.

Dining Etiquette

.Table manners are quite relaxed in Lithuania.

.Wait to be told where to sit.

.Table manners are Continental - hold the fork in the left hand and the knife in the right while eating.

.Always keep your hands visible when eating. Keep your wrists resting on the edge of the table. 
.Take small amounts of food initially so you may accept second helpings.

.Try everything.

.Napkins are kept on the table, not on the lap.

.To indicate you have not finished eating, cross your knife and fork on your plate.

.When you have finished eating, place your knife and fork across your plate with the prongs facing down and the handles facing to the right.

.The host offers the first toast.

.Toasting is generally done with hard liquor and not wine or beer. 
.You should reciprocate with your own toast later in the meal.

Business Etiquette and Protocol

.When conducting business, err on the side of formality and adhere to conservative etiquette and protocol.

.There are marked differences between young entrepreneurs and older businesspeople. 
.Younger businesspeople generally have a less bureaucratic approach and are eager to do what is required to close a deal.

Building Relationships & Communication

.Lithuanians prefer face-to-face meetings, as they need to build relationships of mutual understanding. 
.They prefer to turn business relationships into friendships. 
.Accept offers of hospitality and reciprocate, as this is the sign of a true friend. 
.Once a friendship has developed, Lithuanians are willing to discuss business. 
.It is important to make your initial contact with a high-ranking person who is in a position to make a decision.

.In many ways this is still a hierarchical culture, so showing respect and deference to people of authority is recommended.

.Although they are industrious and hard working, most Lithuanians are very modest. People who brag are deemed arrogant.

.At the same time, Lithuanians are impressed by titles of authority and advanced university degrees, so it is a good idea to let them know your status within your company.
.Lithuanians speak softly.

.They are not particularly emotive speakers.

.They do not touch others while speaking and can appear standoffish and reserved upon the initial meeting.

.It is important that you do not display anger, even if frustrated by the excessive bureaucracy.
.They do not interrupt others while they are speaking, and patiently wait for their turn.
.Many Lithuanian companies adhere to a hierarchical structure. In such cases, senior-level businessmen only speak with people of their same rank.

.More junior members of a team should not address a senior-ranking Lithuanian businessperson directly, as it is seen as a breach of etiquette.

Business Meetings & Negotiations

.Appointments are necessary and should be scheduled 2 to 3 weeks in advance. 
.Send a list of the people who will be attending and their titles so the Lithuanians can assemble a team of similar level people.

.Confirm the meeting when you arrive and again the day before the meeting, since meetings are sometimes cancelled on short notice.

.Arrive on time for meetings. Punctuality is important.

.Meetings are formal.

.There will be a period of small-talk while your colleagues get to know you and decide if you are the type of person with whom they wish to enter into a business relationship. 
.Wait to be told where to sit. In many cases you will be seated across from someone of a similar level.

.Presentations should be thorough, clear, and concise and include back-up analysis to support your position.

.Expect to discuss each point thoroughly before moving on to the next. 
.Business moves slowly due to the bureaucratic nature of society. 
.Be prepared to meet with several lower levels of people before getting to the actual decision maker.

.Lithuanians often use time as a tactic, especially if they know that you have a deadline. Be cautious about letting your business colleagues know that you are under time pressure or they will delay even more.

.Lithuanians will not be rushed into making a deal. They must think it is in their best interest before agreeing.

.Meetings often conclude with a summary of the discussion and a toast to future dealings. 

Useful Information and Links about Lithuania

Currency - the currency of Lithuania is known as the Litas. Use the free currency converter to compare to dollars, GBP or Euro.

Weather - visit Yahoo!'s up to date Weather for Lithuania.

News - check out all the latest Google news on Lithuania.

Intercultural Know-how - use the Intercultural Business Communication tool for tips on doing business in Lithuania.

Dialling Code - the international dialling code for Lithuania is +370.

Time - Lithuania is +2 hours GMT.

Management - for information about being a manager in Lithuania visit the free Management in Lithuania guide.

History - read about the long and rich history of Lithuania.

 

Source: http://commisceo-global.com/country-guides/lithuania-guide