14 December

In the context of graphic system of the modern masters’ works - Ukrainian prose of V. Shevchuk – images of clergy take up a special place. The type of priest - traveler, seeker of truth is essential in the works of V. Shevchuk.

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14 December

The purpose of the present work is to highlight the creation of scientific and educational nanotechnology laboratories within the higher educational institutions, to set goals and objectives of their activities, to find sources for their funding and logistical support, and to introduce the special course «Nanotechnology basics».

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14 December

Comprehensive analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the use of processed products of vegetable raw materials in the manufacture of confectionery is conducted. Use of apple powder is promising direction in this case.

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01 December

Streptomycetes are known as the producers of various bioactive substances widely used in agriculture and many branches of industry. Different biotechnological methods and approaches are used to increased productivity of streptomycetes. In the present study, S. albus strains were subjected to mutagenesis associated with multistage selection and mutant strain with an increase of 3.5 times bacteriolytic enzyme complex production was obtained. Analysis of cell survival rate, antimicrobial and lytic activity as well as enzyme complex production in Streptomyces exposed to the various mutagen combinations (MNU, UV-irradiation, HNO2) were carried out. Mutant strains were characterized by high bacteriolytic enzyme activity and significant antibiotic activity against Kocuria (Micrococcus) variants and Candida albicans. To estimate genomic changes caused by different mutagens, PCR with primers to short nucleotide repeats was performed and amplicons distinguishing parental and mutant strains were defined. The efficacy of the sequential mutagenic treatment for the hyper-producer obtaining as well as the relationship between the mutagen nature and the genomic variability has been shown. The results obtained in our research can be used and applied to the others Streptomyces species.

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01 December

The underwater spark discharge between manganese granules was studied. Optical emission spectroscopy methods were used for diagnostics of such discharge plasma. The colloidal solution with manganese nanoparticles was
produced by this discharge. The biological applications of this colloid were analyzed. The mechanism of metallic
nanoparticle action and their transformation at interacting with biological objects were studied in Alternaria alternata
culture.

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01 December

The accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station resulted in radiation contamination of large tracts of land and particularly the reactor building itself. Sustained exposure of microfungi to radiation appears to have resulted in formerly unknown adaptive features, such as directed growth of fungi to sources of ionizing radiation. We evaluate here spore germination and subsequent emergent hyphal growth of microfungi in the presence of pure c or mixed b and c radiation of fungi isolated from a range of long term background radiation levels.
Conidiospore suspensions were exposed to collimated beams of radiation and percent spore germination and length of emergent hyphae were measured. All fungal species isolated from background radiation showed inhibition or no response in germination when irradiated. Isolates from sites with elevated radiation showed a stimulation in spore germination (69% mixed radiation and 46% for c irradiation).
Most isolates from low background radiation sites showed a significant reduced or no response to exposure to either source of radiation, whereas the stimulatory effect of experimental exposure to radiation appeared to increase in magnitude as prior exposure to radiation increased. We propose that the enhanced spore germination and hyphal growth seen in the exposure trials is induced by prior long term exposure to radiation and these factors could be important in controlling the decomposition of radionuclide-bearing resources in the environment.

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01 December

During the last 15 years, about 2000 strains of 200 species of 98 genera of fungi have been isolated from around the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station. Many of these microfungi are capable of growing into and decomposing ‘hot particles’; carbon based radioactive graphite from the reactor and there are suggestions that some fungi actively direct their growth toward sources of radioactivity, possibly attracted to the carbon skeleton of these structures. In our experiments, we eliminated the confounding effects of carbon as a fungal resource, by developing experimental protocols that expose fungal spores and their germinating hyphae to directional sources of ionizing radiation allowing us to measure fungal response to ionizing radiation per se. We show that both beta and gamma radiation promote directional growth of hyphae towards the source of ionizing radiation.

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01 December

Radionuclides in the env ironment are one of the major concerns to human health and ecotoxicolog y. The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant renewed interest in the role played by fungi in mediating radionuclide movement in ecosystems. As a result of these studies, our knowledge of the impor tance of fungi, especially in their mycorrhizal habit, in long-term accumulation of radionuclides, transfer up the food chain and regulation of accumulation by their host plants was increased. Micro-fungi have been found to be hig hly resilient to exposure to ionizing radiation, w ith fungi having been isolated from w ithin and around the Chernobyl plant. Radioresistance of some fungal species has been linked to the presence of melanin, which has been shown to have emerging properties of acting as an energ y transpor ter for metabolism and has been implicated in enhancing hy phal grow th and directed grow th of sensitized hy phae towards sources of radiation. Using this recently acquired knowledge, we may be in a better position to suggest the use of fungi in bioremediation of radioactively contaminated sites and cleanup of industrial effluent

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01 December

Enterococci are widely used in the production of various fermented food products and can be applied as probiotics. However enterococci are typical opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial infections, they are involved in distribution of antibiotic resistance and process of food spoilage. In the present study genome of 9 Enterococcus durans strains isolated from fermented milk products was analyzed in order to study intraspecies variability and identify pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance genes as well as genes encoding some enterocins. A high level of intraspecies polymorphisms was revealed as the result of amplification with primer to tetranucleotide repeat: each sample had unique amplicon pattern. On the contrary, no detectable differences between samples were observed using M13 primer which contains minisatellite repeat. E.durans strains were also genetically characterized to identify genes coding enterocins A, B, L50B and P. Among all only enterocin P gene was revealed in all samples. To assess the pathogenicity of isolated E. durans strains PCR with primers to virulence determinants, gelatinase gelE, cytolysin cylA, hyaluronidase hyl, adhesion factors asa1 and esp, was performed. None of these was detected in strains analyzed. PCR screening for antibiotic resistance genes (aph, ant, tetM, vanA, vanB) showed that all strains had vancomycin and tetracycline resistance genes and 20% of strains possessed aminoglycoside resistance gene. Thus, the results obtained indicate that accurate molecular-genetic analysis of dairy products is required to prevent harmful effects on human health.

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01 December

To research the antifungal activity and gene expression of lipopeptide antibiotics in strains of genus Bacillus. Methods. Deferred antagonism method, PCR, qRT-PCR, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results.
It was revealed that Bacillus sp. strains C6 and Lg37s had the highest antifungal activity among the fie tested strains. Based on the molecular genetic methods, it was shown that the expression of genes of lipopeptide antibiotics, related to the fengycin family, occurred in all these strains. At the same time, gene expression of cyclolipopeptide iturin was found in the Bacillus sp. strains C6 and Lg37s. It was determined that Bacillus sp. C6 strain had the highest level of expression of the fengycin operon`s genes, whereas the lowest level was observed in Bacillus sp. C10 strain. By means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the presence of fengycins
in the cell-free cultural flid ofBacillus sp. C6 strain was detected. Conclusion. The direct correlation between the level of antifungal activity and the fengycin synthetases expression has not been disclosed. A higher level of antagonism detected for two Bacillus strains is more likely associated with the expression and subsequent synthesis of fengycin and iturin.

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01 December

Polyphasic taxonomic analysis was carried out for Bacillus sp. strain C6, as the antagonist of phytopathogenic bacteria and micromycetes. The combination of cultural, morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties of the strain has enabled researchers to refer it to the Bacillus subtilis group. It has been shown that the fatty acids of the strain’s cell walls were predominantly represented by branched iso- and anteiso-C15:0 and C17:0 fatty acids (over 85%), which was typical for the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens species. The molecular genetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, and the profiling of polymorphic nucleotides have enabled researchers to refer the strain in question to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum.

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01 December

Continuous increase in the number and the variety of anthropogenic sources of electromagnetic radiation causes a high interest in studying the effects ultrahigh frequency on living organisms. In the present research inflence of UHF EMR (15 W, 2.45 GHz) for 5 and 15 min on morphological and genetic peculiarities of Photobacterium phosphoreum colonies was studied. It has been revealed that UHF EMR affected colony growth parameters, induced transcriptional activity of luciferase encoding gene expression and that the effect was depended on exposure duration. The subsequent cultivation of bacteria during a two week period after treatment showed maintaining of the increased luxb mRNA level in irradiated colonies. Opposite bacterial stress responses were detected to UHF EMR and elevated temperature treatments that assumed UHF EMR comprised of not only thermal but specifi component of non-thermal nature.

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01 December

The taxonomic position and biological activities of two Bacillus strains used in veterinary probiotics were studied in this work. These microorganisms inhibit growth of a broad spectrum of pathogenic cultures. They synthesize proteolytic enzymes and other biologically active metabolites, and to some extent, supplement each other with probiotic activities. It is not clear whether these versatile activities are properties of individual strains or bacterial taxa as whole.
16S rRNA comparisons were conducted and illustrated the relatedness of these strains to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their cell wall fatty acid contents were consequently analysed and specified a relation to the ‘B. velezensis’ ecomorph. On account of the previous observations, a simple method of 16S rRNA profiling by polymorphic nucleotides was proposed to determine a group of organisms closely related to ‘B. velezensis’ and B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum, for they are biologically active strains suitable for use in biotechnology. The extreme genetic plasticity of these bacteria endowed each strain with a unique spectrum of antagonistic activity.

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01 December

Four novel strains of saprophytic bacteria were isolated from the soil samples collected in the moist subtropics region (the Black Sea coast of the  Caucasus) and studied using methods of polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Microorganisms were Gram-negative, oxidase positive, aerobic, rod-shaped motile bacteria that produced antibiotic named batumin with high and selective activity against staphylococci; its total formula was С 30Н48N2O7. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences (1376 bp, accession number in Genbank – JF306642) indicated that the isolates belonged to the γ-Proteobacteria, formed a separate branch within the genus Pseudomonas and had 98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Pseudomonas gingeri. The latter essentially differed from the studied strains in its phenotypic characteristics.
The predominant cellular fatty acids of isolates were similar and included C16: 0, C16:1, C18:1, and up to 22.9 % of ΔC17:0; their DNA G+C content was 64.0 mol%. An analysis of taxonomic data indicated that the studied isolates represented a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas batumici sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain UCM B-321 (Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms).

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01 December

The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genetic peculiarities of 5 deep strains of Alteromonas macleodii (isolated from Adriatic and Ionian Sea water from a depth of 1,0003500 m) and 5 strains of the same species isolated from the surface layer of Aegean, Andaman, Black Sea and Atlantic Ocean water near the British shore have been studied. Electron microscopy has shown that the deep strains’ cells were, on average, two times longer (2.1 ±0.2× 0.7±0.1 μm) than the surface strains’ (1.1 ±0.1×0.6±0.1 μm). Using fatty acid analysis (particularly the mono-unsaturated C16:1 and C18:1 fatty  acids contents) the deep and surface isolates were clearly separated into two clusters. Distinctions between them were also found in different lectin binding capacity, which is probably determined by the structure of their extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Analysis of the results of PCR with primers to repeated nucleotide sequences revealed a higher level of genetic polymorphism in surface strains in comparison with the deep isolates. This division was confi rmed by the cluster analysis method though it was not as clear as in the fatty acids analysis. The described peculiarities are probably refl ective of specifi c conditions in which A. macleodii strains live on the surface or in the depth of the world’s oceans.

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01 December

The study of the taxonomic status of the antimicrobial substances producer strain Streptomyces sp. 2435 was conducted. The nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA gene of the strain was determined and deposited in the Genbank (№ JN129837) database. Results of morphological, biochemical and cell wall fatty acids content analyses, evaluation of biosynthesis features of Streptomyces sp. 2435, together with the phylogenetic analysis have provided the basis to identify this strain as Streptomyces albus.

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01 December

Elevated levels of UV-radiation can change dramatically different aspects of plant growth and development that reflects in a wide variety of morphological and physiological responses. In the present research the influence of heat pretreatment and UV-B pre-exposure on barley plant resistance to ultraviolet radiation as well as the effects of UV-B irradiation on plant vegetative and reproductive organs of two barley cultivars were analyzed. The increasing of UV-resistance of barley plants was observed in terms of seedling viability, stability of statolitic starch in embryo roots, leaf tissue structure and pollen fertility. Molecular genetic analysis using ISSR-markers showed the increasing of polymorphic level up to 80% in somatic tissue, while the decreasing of this parameter to 33% was detected in reproductive tissue under the giving conditions. Results obtained in our research suggest that UV-irradiation can cause genomic instability of barley plants and pre-treatments used in our experiment may lead to plant acclimation and adaptation to UV-B radiation.

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01 December

Following the development of nuclear weapons and the subsequent evolution of nuclear energy-generating industries, there has been considerable concern regarding the safe storage of radionuclide waste. Widescale release, in the aftermath of nuclear detonations or as the result of malfunction of atomic energy plants and reprocessing facilities, has also been a preoccupation. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations on the ecological aspects of radionuclide release were discussed by Coughtree (1983), in which Heal and Horrill (1983) summarized element transfers within terrestrial ecosystems, highlighting the importance of organic soil horizons and their microbial communities as potential accumulators of both nutrient elements and radionuclides. This was a significant step forward from initial discussions of the impact of radionuclide fallout on ecosystems, where the involvement of fungi in regulating radionuclide movement was limited to one sentence in a paragraph describing radionuclide accumulation in organic horizons of forest soils, which may be related to fungal biomass (Osburn 1967). Now, in a more recent model of radiocesium migration in forest ecosystems, Avila and Moberg (1999) place fungal activity in the pivotal point of the diagonal of their interaction matrix, as one of the important biotic regulators of radionuclide movement in soils.

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13 November

The goal of this article is to defie the nature, specifi features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the effiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine.


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23 December

The present collection of articles has been prepared as the outcome of the project “Vocational Rehabilitation of People with Disabilities” (No. TAP-LU-13-033) that was conducted according to the collaboration programme of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania and the State Agency of Science, Innovations and Informatization of Ukraine in the field of scientific research and technologies for 2011-2015.
The aim of the project was to reveal the preconditions of the success of vocational rehabilitation of people with disabilities and prepare
the recommendations for the development of the system of vocational rehabilitation of people with disabilities in both countries by developing bilateral scientific collaboration between Lithuania (Šiauliai University) and Ukraine (University “Ukraine”) and sharing international experience in prevocational training of pupils and students with special educational needs and direct participants of the vocational rehabilitation system, vocational training of people with disabilities, support in the situation of employment and vocational adaptation.


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